- Judicial Conduct
- Making a complaint
- Complaint Form
- Frequently Asked Questions
- Previous Complaints Online
- Inquiry Committee Decisions
MAKING A COMPLAINT
Table of Contents
Any member of the public can make a complaint to the Council provided the complaint is about judicial conduct, is made in writing, and is about a specific federally appointed judge, the Council will review the matter.
Although the Minister of Justice or a provincial Attorney General can initiate a formal inquiry about a federally appointed judge, most complaints come from the general public.
If a provincial Attorney General or the Minister of Justice of Canada submits a complaint, the Council must appoint an Inquiry Committee to consider whether a recommendation should be made to the Minister of Justice to remove the judge from office. The Inquiry Committee must hold a hearing, normally in public. The Council then considers the report of the Inquiry Committee and makes a recommendation to the Minister of Justice.
In accordance with the complaints process, the Canadian Judicial Council can also initiate an inquiry into a judge’s conduct.
The Council cannot investigate general complaints about the justice system, the courts, or the judiciary as a whole. It cannot change judicial decisions in court cases, compensate individuals, grant appeals, or address demands for a new trial.
The Canadian Judicial Council does not have jurisdiction over the lower levels of provincial courts, such as those that hear small claims disputes, and some family and criminal matters. If you want to make a complaint about a judge in one of those courts, you must direct your complaint to the judicial council in your province or territory.
The Canadian Judicial Council does not have the authority to investigate complaints against court staff or lawyers. Complaints about court staff should be made to the court administration office of the courthouse in question. Complaints about lawyers should be made to the Law Society in your province or territory.
The Canadian Judicial Council seeks to ensure a fair process when a complaint is made against a judge. Every complaint is considered seriously and conscientiously.
You do not have to be represented by a lawyer if you want to make a complaint about a judge. You do not need to use a special form to make a complaint to the Council although one is offered here for your convenience. There is no fee charged and no deadline for making a complaint. The Council requires only that a complaint be:
- in writing;
- about a named, federally appointed judge; and
- about the conduct of a judge and not their decision.
You can write a letter to the Canadian Judicial Council, and send it by regular mail (Canadian Judicial Council, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0W8) or by email. Your letter should include:
- your name and address;
- the name of the judge you are making a complaint against; and
- a description of the judge’s conduct that you believe was inappropriate.
The Council takes complaints very seriously and deals with them as quickly as possible. Out of the 200 or so complaints received every year, the Council concludes the majority of them within three months.
Some complaints contain serious allegations of inappropriate conduct against a judge and must be further investigated by the Council. Such cases may be investigated with the assistance of a lawyer from outside the Council. This person is chosen for their expertise and reputation in the legal community. The lawyer may interview the judge, the complainant, and others who are connected with the situation, and prepare a report.
If the complaint comes from a provincial Attorney General or the Minister of Justice of Canada, the matter may go directly to an Inquiry Committee.
The Inquiry Committee can conduct its own investigation into the complaint, and hear from the judge, the person who made the complaint, and others. The Inquiry Committee normally holds a public hearing, where the judge and the person who complained can attend and give evidence about the matter that led to the complaint. The Inquiry Committee prepares a report, which goes to the full Canadian Judicial Council for discussion.
Council may recommend to Parliament (through the Minister of Justice) that the judge be removed from office. Parliament has never had to face such a situation, but sometimes a judge will retire or resign before that step is taken.
When the complaint has been considered and a decision is reached, the Council will advise the person who complained of its decision in writing.